P-Statements

 

Precautionary statements, also known as P-statements, form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). P-statements provide brief phrases and/or illustrations to explain specific measures and safety precautions that should be taken in order to minimize or avoid adverse outcomes that may result from exposure, or improper storage or handling of a hazardous substance.

The GHS also contains hazard statements, which provide standardized hazard wordings. Both P-statements and H-statements are usually found on a label or Material Data Safety Sheet (MSDS). It is important to remember that P-statements merely indicate the safety precautions that you need to follow when using the material, not the explicit hazards of the material.

To learn more about GHS hazard statements, click here.

Though US OSHA does not currently require precautionary statements, you should expect to see P-statements appear on labels and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) over the next few years as the US moves toward complying with the GHS. In the European Union, precautionary statements are beginning to replace safety phrases (S-phrases) as the GHS is phased in per Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008.

In total, there are 116 individual and 33 combined precautionary statements. Each P-Statement is designated a unique numerical code which may be used as a valuable reference when interpreting labels and Material Safety Data Sheets, MSDS sheets, safety sheets, and material safety sheets printed in other languages. These codes are not to be used as a substitute for writing out the complete text of the safety precaution.

The codes have the form Pnxx, where P stands for “Precautionary Statement”. xx corresponds to the sequential numbering of precautionary statements, while the value of n refers to:

  1. General precautionary statements
  2. Prevention precautionary statements
  3. Response precautionary statements
  4. Storage precautionary statements
  5. Disposal precautionary statements
General Precautionary Statement Codes, P1xx
Code
General Precautionary Statement
P101
If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand.
P102
Keep out of reach of children.
P103
Read label before use.
Prevention Precautionary Statement Codes, P2xx
Code
General Precautionary Statement
P201
Obtain special instructions before use.
P202
Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. – No smoking.
P211
Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source.
P220
Keep/Store away from clothing/…/combustible materials.
P221
Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles/..
P222
Do not allow contact with air.
P230
Keep wetted with …
P231
Handle under inert gas.
P232
Protect from moisture.
P233
Keep container tightly closed.
P234
Keep only in original container.
P235
Keep cool.
P240
Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241
Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P242
Use only non-sparking tools.
P243
Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P250
Do not subject to grinding/shock/…/friction.
P251
Pressurized container: Do not pierce or burn, even after use.
P260
Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P262
Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
P262
Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
P263
Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing.
P264
Wash…thoroughly after handling
P270
Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271
Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area
P272
Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273
Avoid release to the environment.
P280
Wash…thoroughly after handling
P281
Use personal protective equipment as required.
P282
Wear cold insulating gloves/face shield/eye protection.
P283
Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing
P210
Wear respiratory protection.
P284
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. – No smoking.
P285
In case of inadequate ventilation wear respiratory protection.
P231 + P232
Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P235 + P410
Keep cool. Protect from sunlight.
Response Precautionary Statement Codes, P3xx
Code
General Precautionary Statement
P301
IF SWALLOWED:
P302
IF ON SKIN:
P303
IF ON SKIN (or hair):
P304
IF INHALED:
P305
IF IN EYES:
P306
IF ON CLOTHING:
P307
IF exposed:
P308
IF exposed or concerned:
P309
IF exposed or if you feel unwell:
P310
Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P311
Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P311
Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P312
Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
P313
Get medical advice/attention.
P314
Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.
P315
Get immediate medical advice/attention.
P320
Specific treatment is urgent (see … on this label).
P321
Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P322
Specific measures (see … on this label).
P330
Rinse mouth.
P331
Do NOT induce vomiting.
P332
If skin irritation occurs:
P333
If skin irritation or rash occurs:
P334
Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P335
Brush off loose particles from skin.
P336
Thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Do not rub affected area.
P337
If eye irritation persists:
P338
Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P340
Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P341

 

If breathing is difficult, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P342
If experiencing respiratory symptoms:
P350
Gently wash with plenty of soap and water.
P351
Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes.
P352
Wash with plenty of soap and water.
P353
Rinse skin with water/shower.

P360

 

Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
P361
Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
P362
Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
P363
Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
P370
In case of fire:
P371
In case of major fire and large quantities:
P372
Explosion risk in case of fire.
P373
DO NOT fight fire when fire reaches explosives.
P374
Fight fire with normal precautions from a reasonable distance.
375
Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion
P376
Stop leak if safe to do so.
P377
Leaking gas fire: Do not extinguish, unless leak can be stopped safely.
P378
Use … for extinction.
P380
Evacuate area.
P381
Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so.
P390
Absorb spillage to prevent material damage.
P391
Collect spillage.
P391
Collect spillage.
P301 + P310
IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301 + P312
IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
P301 + P330 + P331
IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P302 + P334
IF ON SKIN: Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P302 + P350
IF ON SKIN: Gently wash with plenty of soap and water.
P302 + P352
IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.

P303 + P361 +

P353

IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower.
P304 + P312
IF INHALED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.

P304 + P340

 

IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P304 + P341

 

IF INHALED: If breathing is difficult, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P305 + P351 +

P338

IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P306 + P360

 

IF ON CLOTHING: Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
P307 + P311
IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P308 + P313
IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.
P309 + P311
IF exposed or if you feel unwell: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P332 + P313
If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/ attention.
P333 + P313
If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P335 + P334
Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P337 + P313
If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P342 + P311
If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P370 + P376
In case of fire: Stop leak if safe to do so.
P370 + P378
In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P370 + P380
In case of fire: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P370 + P380 + P375
In case of fire: Evacuate area.

P371 + P380 +

P375

In case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P376
Stop leak if safe to do so.
P377
Leaking gas fire: Do not extinguish, unless leak can be stopped safely.
P378
Use … for extinction.
P380
Evacuate area.
P381
Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so.
P390
Absorb spillage to prevent material damage.
P391
Collect spillage.
P391
Collect spillage.
P301 + P310
IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301 + P312
IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
P301 + P330 + P331
IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P302 + P334
IF ON SKIN: Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P302 + P350
IF ON SKIN: Gently wash with plenty of soap and water.
P302 + P352
IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.

P303 + P361 +

P353

IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower.
P304 + P312
IF INHALED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.

P304 + P340

 

IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P304 + P341

 

IF INHALED: If breathing is difficult, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P305 + P351 +

P338

IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P306 + P360

 

IF ON CLOTHING: Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
P307 + P311
IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P308 + P313
IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.
P309 + P311
IF exposed or if you feel unwell: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P332 + P313
If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/ attention.
P333 + P313
If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P335 + P334
Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P337 + P313
If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P342 + P311
If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P370 + P376
In case of fire: Stop leak if safe to do so.
P370 + P378
In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P370 + P380
In case of fire: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P370 + P380 + P375
In case of fire: Evacuate area.

P371 + P380 +

P375

In case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
Storage Precautionary Statement Codes, P4xx
Code
General Precautionary Statement
P401
Store …
P402
Store in a dry place.
P403
Store in a dry place.
P404
Store in a closed container.
P405
Store locked up.
P406
Store in corrosive resistant/… container with a resistant inner liner.
P407
Maintain air gap between stacks/pallets.
P410
Protect from sunlight.
P411
Store at temperatures not exceeding …°C/…°F.
P412
Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/ 122 °F.
P413
Store bulk masses greater than … kg/… lbs at temperatures not exceeding …°C/…°F.
P420
Store away from other materials.
P420
Store contents under …
P402 + P404
Store in a dry place. Store in a closed container.
P404 + P233
Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P403 + P235
Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P410 + P2403
Protect from sunlight. Store in a well-ventilated place.
P410 + P412
Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F.
P411 + P235
Store at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F. Keep cool.
Disposal Precautionary Statement Codes, P5xx
Code
Disposal Precautionary Statement
P501
Dispose of contents/container to …

 

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